Cliff Shaffer's Publications

Here are many of the professional works that I have written or coauthored. For a complete list, see my full vitae. This listing is mostly for those things that I can link to online. Whenever possible, I include a link to a .pdf file for the paper, a BibTeX entry for the paper, and the DOI entry for the paper.

Here are my entries in Google Scholar, DBLP, ACM Portal, and IEEE Xplore.

Books

  1. C.A. Shaffer, Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in Java: Third Edition, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, 2011.
  2. C.A. Shaffer, Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++: Third Edition, Dover Publications, Mineola, NY, 2011.
  3. C.A. Shaffer, A Practical Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis: Second Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001.
  4. C.A. Shaffer, A Practical Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis: Java Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1998.
  5. C.A. Shaffer, A Practical Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997.

Journal Publications

  1. V. Karavirta and C.A. Shaffer, Creating Engaging Online Learning Material with the JSAV JavaScript Algorithm Visualization Library (DOI, PDF), IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies 9, 2(April-June 2016), 171-183.
  2. S. Hamouda and C.A. Shaffer, Crib Sheets and Exam Performance in a Data Structures Course (DOI), Computer Science Education 26, 1(February 2016), 1-26.
  3. A. Palmisano, S. Hoops, L.T. Watson, T.C. Jones Jr, J.J. Tyson, and C.A. Shaffer, JigCell Run Manager (JC-RM): a tool for managing large sets of biochemical model parametrizations (DOI), BMC Systems Biology 9, December 2016.
  4. T.-H. Ahn, A. Sandu, L.T.Watson, C.A. Shaffer, Y. Cao, and W.T. Baumann, A Framework to Analyze the Performance of Load Balancing Schemes for Ensembles of Stochastic Simulations (DOI, PDF), International Journal of Parallel Programming, 4(August 2015), 597-630.
  5. E. Fouh, D.A. Breakiron, S. Hamouda, M.F. Farghally, and C.A. Shaffer, Exploring students learning behavior with an interactive eTextbook in Computer Science Courses (DOI), Computers in Human Behavior 41, (December 2014), 478-485.
  6. C.A. Shaffer, Grand challenges in digital education (DOI), Frontiers in ICT 1, 5(2014).
  7. E. Fouh, V. Karavirta, D.A. Breakiron, S. Hamouda, S. Hall, T.L. Naps, and C.A. Shaffer, Design and architecture of an interactive eTextbook - The OpenDSA system (DOI, PDF), Science of Computer Programming 88, Special Issue on Software Development Concerns in the e-Learning Domain, 1(August 2014), 22-40.
  8. M.L. Cooper, C.A. Shaffer, S.H. Edwards, and S.P. Ponce, Open source software and the algorithm visualization community (DOI, PDF), Science of Computer Programming 88, Special Issue on Software Development Concerns in the e-Learning Domain, 1(August 2014), 82-91.
  9. A. Verstak, N. Ramakrishnan, L.T. Watson, J. He, C.A. Shaffer, and A.Y. Grama, Using hierarchical data mining to characterize performance of wireless system configurations (DOI, PDF), Advances in Engineering Software 65, (2013), 66-77.
  10. E. Fouh, M. Akbar, and C.A. Shaffer, The Role of Visualization in Computer Science Education (DOI, PDF), Computers in the Schools 29, Issue 1-2, 2012, 95-117.
  11. Z. Liu, Y. Pu, F. Li, C.A. Shaffer, S. Hoops, J.J. Tyson, and Y. Cao, Hybrid modeling and simulation of stochastic effects on progression through the eukaryotic cell cycle (.pdf), The Journal of Chemical Physics 136, (January, 2012).
  12. C.A. Shaffer, M.L. Cooper, A.J.D. Alon, M. Akbar, M. Stewart, S. Ponce, and S.H. Edwards, Algorithm Visualization: The State of the Field (.pdf, DOI), ACM Transactions on Computing Education 10, 3(August 2010), 1-22.
  13. R. Randhawa, C.A. Shaffer, and J.J.Tyson, Model Composition for Macromolecular Regulatory Networks (.pdf, DOI), IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 7, 2(April-June 2010), 278-287.
  14. T.-H. Ahn, L. T. Watson, Y. Cao, C. A. Shaffer, and W. T. Baumann, Cell cycle modeling for budding yeast with stochastic simulation algorithms (DOI), Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences 51, 1(2009), 27-52.
  15. R. Randhawa, C.A. Shaffer, and J.J.Tyson, Model Aggregation: a building-block approach to creating large macromolecular regulatory networks (.pdf, DOI, BibTeX), Bioinformatics 25, 24(2009), 3289-3295.
  16. T.D. Panning, L.T. Watson, N.A. Allen, K.C. Chen, C.A. Shaffer, and J.J. Tyson, Deterministic Parallel Global Parameter Estimation for a Model of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle (.pdf), Journal of Global Optimization 40, 4(April 2008), 719-738.
  17. D. Mishra, C.A. Shaffer, N. Ramakrishnan, L.T. Watson, K.K. Bae, J. He, A.A. Verstak, and W.H. Tranter, S4W: A Problem Solving Environment for Wireless System Design, Software Practice & Experience 37, 14(November 2007), 1539-1558. (.pdf, BibTeX).
  18. L. Thomas, C.A. Shaffer, L. Mili, and E. Thomas, Automated Detection of Severe Surface Defects on Barked Hardwood Logs (.pdf), Forest Product Journal 57, 4(April 2007), 50-56.
  19. L. Thomas, L. Mili, E. Thomas, and C.A. Shaffer, Defect Detection on Hardwood Logs Using Laser Scanning (.pdf), Wood and Fiber Science 38, 4(2006), 682-695.
  20. C.A. Shaffer, Experiences Teaching a Graduate Research Methods Course (.pdf), SIGCSE Bulletin 38, 2(June 2006), 97-101.
  21. M. Vass, C.A. Shaffer, N. Ramakrishnan, L.T. Watson, and J.J. Tyson, The JigCell Model Builder: A Spreadsheet Interface for Creating Biochemical Reaction Network Models (.pdf, BibTeX), IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 3, 2(Apr-Jun 2006), 155-164.
  22. N.A. Allen, K.C. Chen, C.A. Shaffer, J.J. Tyson, and L.T. Watson, Computer Evaluation of Network Dynamics Models with Application to Cell Cycle Control in Budding Yeast (.pdf), IEE Proceedings - Systems Biology 153, 1(Jan 2006), 13-21.
  23. J. He, A. Verstak, L. T. Watson, C. A. Stinson, N. Ramakrishnan, C. A. Shaffer, T. S. Rappaport, C. R. Anderson, K. Bae, J. Jiang, and W. H. Tranter, Globally Optimal Transmitter Placement for Indoor Wireless Communication Systems (.pdf), IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 3, 6(Nov 2004) 1906-1911.
  24. M. Vass, N. Allen, C.A. Shaffer, N. Ramakrishnan, L.T. Watson, and J.J. Tyson, The JigCell Model Builder and Run Manager (.pdf, BibTeX), Bioinformatics 20, 18(Dec 2004), 3680-3681.
  25. R. Skidmore, A. Verstak, N. Ramakrishnan, T.S. Rappaport, L.T. Watson, J. He, S. Varadarajan, C.A. Shaffer, J. Chen, K.K. Bae, J. Jiang, and W.H. Tranter, Towards Integrated PSEs for Wireless Communications: Experiences with the S4W and SitePlanner Projects (.pdf, BibTeX), ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review 8, 2(April 2004), 20-34.
  26. N.A. Allen, L. Calzone, K.C. Chen, A. Ciliberto, N. Ramakrishnan, C.A. Shaffer, J.C. Sible, J.J. Tyson, M.T. Vass, L.T. Watson, and J.W. Zwolak, Modeling Regulatory Networks at Virginia Tech (.pdf), OMICS, A Journal of Integrative Biology 7, 3(2003), 285-299.
  27. N.A. Allen, C.A. Shaffer, M.T. Vass, N. Ramakrishnan, and L.T. Watson, Improving the Development Process for Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Models with a Modeling Support Environment (.pdf), Simulation 79, 12(Dec 2003), 674-688.
  28. E.J. Rubin, C.A. Shaffer, N. Ramakrishnan, L.T. Watson, R. Dymond, D. Kibler, R. Dietz, J. Chanat, V. Lohani, D. Bosch, and C. Speir, From Landscapes to Waterscapes: A PSE for Landuse Change Analysis (.pdf, BibTeX), Engineering with Computers 19, 1(July 2003), 9-25.
  29. A. Verstak, N. Ramakrishnan, L.T. Watson, J. He, C.A. Shaffer, K.K. Bae, J. Jiang, W.H. Tranter, and T.S. Rappaport, BSML: A Binding Schema Markup Language for Data Interchange in PSEs (.pdf, BibTeX), Scientific Programming 11, 3(August 2003), 199-224.
  30. J. He, L.T. Watson, N. Ramakrishnan, C.A. Shaffer, A. Verstak, J. Jiang, K. Bae, and W.H. Tranter, Dynamic Data Structures for a Direct Search Algorithm (.pdf), Computational Optimization and Applications 23, 1(October 2002), 5-25.
  31. L.T. Watson, V.K. Lohani, D.F. Kibler, R.L. Dymond, N. Ramakrishnan, and C.A. Shaffer, Integrated Computing Environments for Watershed Management (.pdf), ASCE Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering 16, 4(October 2002), 259-268.
  32. N. Ramakrishnan, L.T. Watson, D.G. Kafura, C.J. Ribbens, and C.A. Shaffer, Programming Environments for Multidisciplinary Grid Communities (.pdf, BibTeX), Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 13-15(Nov-Dec 2002), 1241-1273.
  33. J.M.A. Begole, R.L. Smith, C.A. Struble, and C.A. Shaffer Resource Sharing for Replicated Synchronous Groupware (.pdf BibTeX), IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 9, 6(Dec 2001) 833-843.
  34. A. Goel, C.A. Baker, C.A. Shaffer, B. Grossman, W.H. Mason, and L.T. Watson VizCraft: A Problem Solving Environment for Configuration Design of a High Speed Civil Transport (.pdf), Computing in Science and Engineering 3, 1(Jan/Feb 2001), 56-66.
  35. J. Begole, M.B. Rosson and C.A. Shaffer, Flexible Collaboration Transparency: Supporting Worker Independence in Replicated Application-Sharing Systems (.pdf, BibTeX), ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 6, 2(June, 1999), 95-132.
  36. S.H Edwards and C.A. Shaffer, An Analysis of a Course-Oriented Electronic Mailing List, Computer Science Education 9, 1(April 1999), 8-22.
  37. A. Goel, C. Phanouriou, F. A. Kamke, C. J. Ribbens, C. A. Shaffer, and L. T. Watson, WBCSim: A Prototype Problem Solving Environment for Wood-Based Composites Simulations (.pdf, BibTeX), Engineering with Computers 15, 2(1999), 198-210.
  38. J. Begole, P.L. Isenhour, and C.A. Shaffer, Can You Share JavaBeans?, Dr. Dobb's Journal, 300(June 1999), 121-122, (also, Computer Science TR 98-13, Virginia Tech, 1998).
  39. J.B. Begole, C.A. Struble, and C.A. Shaffer, Leveraging Java Applets: Toward Collaboration Transparency in Java (.pdf, BibTeX), IEEE Internet Computing 1, 2(Mar-Apr 1997), 57-64.
  40. S.V. Pemmaraju and C.A. Shaffer, Analysis of the Worst Case Space Complexity of a PR Quadtree (.pdf, BibTeX), Information Processing Letters 49 5(Mar 1994), 263-267 (also, Computer Science TR 92-09, Virginia Tech, April 1992).
  41. L.W. Carstensen, Jr., C.A. Shaffer, R.W. Morrill and E.A. Fox, GeoSim: A GIS-Based Simulation Laboratory for Introductory Geography (.pdf), Journal of Geography 92, 5(Sep/Oct 1993), 217-222.
  42. C.A. Shaffer, R. Juvvadi, and L.S. Heath, A Generalized Comparison of Quadtree and Bintree Storage Requirements (.pdf, BibTeX), Image and Vision Computing 11, 7(September 1993), 402-412 (also, Computer Science TR 89-23, Virginia Tech, Jun 1989).
  43. C.A. Shaffer and G.M. Herb, A Real-Time Robot Arm Collision Avoidance System (.pdf), IEEE Transactions on Robotics 8, 2(1992), 149-160, (also, Computer Science TR 90-28, Virginia Tech, Jun 1990).
  44. C.A. Shaffer, Real-Time Robot Arm Collision Detection for Telerobotics (.pdf), Journal of Computer & Electrical Engineering 17, 3(1991), 205-215.
  45. C.A. Shaffer and Q.F. Stout, Linear Time Distance Transforms for Quadtrees, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing: Image Understanding 54, 2(Sep 1991), 215-223, (also, Computer Science TR 89-7, Virginia Tech, Aug 1989).
  46. M. Lattanzi and C.A. Shaffer, An Optimal Boundary to Quadtree Conversion Algorithm, Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing: Image Understanding 53, 3(May 1991), 303-311, (also Computer Science TR 89-16, Virginia Tech, May 1989).
  47. D.N. Oskard, T.-H. Hong, and C.A. Shaffer, Real-Time Algorithms and Data Structures for Underwater Mapping (.pdf), IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 20, 6(Nov/Dec 1990), 1469-1475.
  48. C.A. Shaffer, H. Samet, and R.C. Nelson, QUILT: A Geographic Information System Based on Quadtrees (.pdf, BibTeX), International Journal of Geographic Information Systems 4, 2(Aug, 1990), 103-131, (also Computer Science TR-1885, University of Maryland, Jul 1987).
  49. C.-H. Ang, H. Samet, and C.A. Shaffer, A New Region Expansion for Quadtrees (.pdf, BibTeX), IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 12, 7(Jul, 1990), 682-686.
  50. C.A. Shaffer and H. Samet, Set Operations for Unaligned Linear Quadtrees (.pdf, BibTeX), Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 50, 1(Apr 1990), 29-49, (also Computer Science TR 88-31, Virginia Tech, Sep 1988).
  51. C.A. Shaffer and H. Samet, Algorithm to Expand Regions Represented by Linear Quadtrees (.pdf), Image and Vision Computing 6, 3(Aug 1988), 162-168, (also Computer Science TR-1849, University of Maryland, May 1987).
  52. C.A. Shaffer, A Formula for Computing the Number of Quadtree Node Fragments Created by a Shift (.pdf), Pattern Recognition Letters 7, 1(Jan 1988), 45-49, (also Computer Science TR-1850, University of Maryland, May 1987).
  53. H. Samet, C.A. Shaffer, R.C. Nelson, Y.-G. Huang, K. Fujimura, and A. Rosenfeld, Recent Developments in Linear Quadtree-Based Geographic Information Systems (.pdf), Image and Vision Computing 5, 3(Aug 1987), 187-197, (also Computer Science TR-1578, University of Maryland, Dec 1985).
  54. H. Samet, C.A. Shaffer and R.E. Webber, Digitizing the Plane with Cells of Nonuniform Size (.pdf, BibTeX), Information Processing Letters 24, 6(Apr 1987), 369-375, (also Computer Science TR-1619, University of Maryland, Jan 1986).
  55. C.A. Shaffer and H. Samet, Optimal Quadtree Construction Algorithms (.pdf), Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing 37, 3(Mar 1987), 402-419
  56. H. Samet and C.A. Shaffer, A Model for the Analysis of Neighbor Finding in Pointer-Based Quadtrees (.pdf), IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 7, 6(Nov 1985), 717-720, (also Computer Science TR-1432, University of Maryland, Aug 1984).
  57. H. Samet, A. Rosenfeld, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, A Geographic Information System Using Quadtrees (.pdf, BibTex), Pattern Recognition 17, 6(Nov/Dec 1984), 647-656.
  58. H. Samet, A. Rosenfeld, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, Quadtree Region Representation in Cartography: Experimental Results, (.pdf), IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 13, 6(Nov/Dec 1983), 1148-1154.

Book Chapters

  1. E. Fouh, S. Hamouda, M.F. Farghally, and C.A. Shaffer, Automating Learner Feedback in an eTextbook for Data Structures and Algorithms Courses, in Challenges in ICT Education: Formative Assessment, Learning Data Analytics and Gamification, Santi Caballó and Robert Clarisó, eds., Elsevier, 2016, 135--165.
  2. M. Akbar and C.A. Shaffer, Social Networks in Digital Libraries, in Digital Libraries Applications: CBIR, Education, Social Networks, eScience/Simulation, and GIS, E.A. Fox and J.P. Leidig, eds., Morgan & Claypool, 2014, 45-62.
  3. C.A. Shaffer, J.W. Zwolak, R. Randhawa, and J.J. Tyson, Modeling Molecular Regulatory Networks with JigCell and PET, in Systems Biology 500, Ivan Maly, ed., Humana Press, 2009, 81-111.
  4. J. Koenemann, J.M. Carroll, C.A. Shaffer, M.B. Rosson, and M.A. Abrams, Designing Collaborative Applications for Classroom Use: The LiNC Project in The Design of Children's Technology, Allison Druin, ed., Morgan Kaufmann, 1998, 99-122.
  5. C.A. Shaffer, Data representations for Geographic Information Systems in Annual Review of Information Science and Technology 27, (Martha E. Williams, Ed.), American Society for Information Science, Medford, NJ, 1992, 135-172.
  6. C.A. Shaffer and C.D. Feustel, Exact Computation of 2-D Intersections in Graphics Gems III, (D. Kirk, Ed.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1992 (also, Computer Science TR 91-29, Virginia Tech, September 1991).
  7. C.A. Shaffer, Getting Around on a Sphere, in Graphics Gems II, (J. Arvo, Ed.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1991.
  8. C.A. Shaffer, Bit Interleaving for Quad- or Octrees, in Graphics Gems, (A. Glassner, Ed.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1990, 51-53.
  9. C.A. Shaffer, Fast Circle/Rectangle Intersection Checking, in Graphics Gems, (A. Glassner, Ed.), Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1990, 443-447.
  10. H. Samet, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, Using Linear Quadtrees to Store Vector Data (.pdf), in Data Structures for Raster Graphics, (L.R.A. Kessner, F.J. Peters, and M.L.P. van Lierop, Eds.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1986, 91-123 (also Computer Science TR-1550, University of Maryland, Aug 1985).

Edited Collections

  1. G.A. Wainer, C.A. Shaffer, R.M. McGraw, M.J. Chinni, Proceedings of the 2009 Spring Simulation Multiconference, SpringSim 2009 (BibTeX), San Diego, California, USA, March 22-27, 2009, SCS/ACM.
  2. C.A. Shaffer, Dissertation Abstracts in Computer Graphics, Computer Graphics 27, 2(September 1993), 86-98.
  3. C.A. Shaffer, Dissertation Abstracts in Computer Graphics, Computer Graphics 26, 1(January 1992), 76-96.

Invited Conference Papers

  1. Z. Liu, C.A. Shaffer, U.J. Mobassera, L.T. Watson, and Y. Cao, Multistate Modeling and Simulation for Regulatory Networks (.pdf), Proceedings of the 2010 Winter Simulation Conference, B. Johansson, S. Jain, J. Montoya-Torres, J. Hugan, and E. Yücesan, eds., December 2010, 631-642.
  2. C.A. Shaffer, R. Randhawa, and J.J. Tyson, The Role of Composition and Aggregation in Modeling Macromolecular Regulatory Networks (.pdf, BibTeX), in Proceedings of the 2006 Winter Simulation Conference, L. F. Perrone, F. P. Wieland, J. Liu, B. G. Lawson, D. M. Nicol, and R. M. Fujimoto, eds, Monterey, CA, December 2006, 1628-1635. [Presentation]
  3. H.M. Sauro, A.M. Uhrmacher, D. Harel, M. Hucka, M. Kwiatkowski, P. Mendes, C.A. Shaffer, L. Stromback, and J.J. Tyson, Challenges for Modeling and Simulation Methods in Systems Biology (.pdf ), in Proceedings of the 2006 Winter Simulation Conference, L. F. Perrone, F. P. Wieland, J. Liu, B. G. Lawson, D. M. Nicol, and R. M. Fujimoto, eds, Monterey, CA, December 2006, 1720-1730.
  4. E.A. Fox, N.D. Barnette, C.A. Shaffer, L. Heath, W. Wake, L.T. Nowell, J.A.N. Lee, D. Hix and H.R. Hartson, Progress in Interactive Learning with a Digital Library in Computer Science (.pdf), in Proceedings ED-MEDIA 95, World Conf. on Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, June 17-21, 1995, Graz, Austria.
  5. C.A. Shaffer, Indexing Methods for Area-of-Interest Retrieval from World Scale GIS (.pdf), Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Digital Maps in Geosciences, Wuerzburg, West Germany, Sep 1989, in Geologisches Jahrbuch A 122, 1992, 101-107.
  6. C.A. Shaffer, An Empirical Comparison of Vectors, Rasters, and Quadtrees for Representing Geographic Data (.pdf), Proceedings of the International Colloquium on the Construction and Display of Geoscientific Maps Derived from Databases, Dinkelsbuehl, West Germany, Dec 1986, in Geologisches Jahrbuch A 104, (1988), 99-115.
  7. H. Samet, C.A. Shaffer, R.C. Nelson, Y.-G. Huang, K. Fujimura, and A. Rosenfeld, Hierarchical Data Structures for Geographic Information (.pdf), Proceedings of the International Colloquium on the Construction and Display of Geoscientific Maps Derived from Databases, Dinkelsbuehl, West Germany, Dec 1986, in Geologisches Jahrbuch A 104, (1988), 97-98.

Conference Papers

  1. A.C. Bart, R. Whitcomb, D. Kafura, C.A. Shaffer, and E. Tilevich, Computing with CORGIS: Diverse, Real-world Datasets for Introductory Computing (.pdf, DOI), in Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE 2017), Seattle, WA, March 2017, 57-62 (Winner, Best Research Paper Award).
  2. M.F. Farghally, K.H. Koh, H. Shahin, and C.A. Shaffer, Evaluating the Effectiveness of Algorithm Analysis Visualizations (.pdf, DOI), in Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE 2017), Seattle, WA, March 2017, 201--206 (Designated an Exemplary Research Paper).
  3. M.F. Farghally, K.H. Koh, J.V. Ernst, and C.A. Shaffer, Towards a Concept Inventory for Algorithm Analysis Topics (.pdf, DOI) in Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE 2017), Seattle, WA, March 2017, 207--212.
  4. E. Fouh, M.F. Farghally, S. Hamouda, K.H. Koh, and C.A. Shaffer, Investigating Difficult Topics in a Data Structures Course Using Item Response Theory and Logged Data Analysis (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2016), Raleigh, NC, June, 2016, 370-375.
  5. J. Martin, S.H. Edwards, and C.A. Shaffer, The Effects of Procrastination Interventions on Programming Project Success (.pdf, DOI), Proceedings of the eleventh annual International Conference on International Computing Education Research (ICER '15), Omaha, Nebraska, September, 2015, 3-11.
  6. S.H. Edwards, J. Martin, and C.A. Shaffer, Examining Classroom Interventions to Reduce Procrastination (.pdf, DOI), Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE'2015), July 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania, 254-259.
  7. A. Korhonen, T. Naps, C. Boisvert, P. Crescenzi, V. Karavirta, L. Mannila, B. Miller, B. Morrison, S.H. Rodger, R. Ross, and C.A. Shaffer, Requirements and Design Strategies for Open Source Interactive Computer Science eBooks, in Proceedings of the ITiCSE Working Group Reports Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education - Working Group Reports (ITiCSE-WGR'13), (.pdf), Canterbury, England, UK, July, 2013, 53-72.
  8. V. Karavirta and C.A. Shaffer, JSAV: The JavaScript Algorithm Visualization Library, in Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE '13), (.pdf), Canterbury, England, UK, July 2013, 159-164.
  9. S. Hall, E. Fouh, D. Breakiron, M. Elshehaly, and C.A. Shaffer, Evaluating Online Tutorials for Data Structures and Algorithms Courses, Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition (.pdf), Atlanta, GA, June 2013, Paper #5951.
  10. C.A. Shaffer, V. Karavirta, A. Korhonen and T.L. Naps, OpenDSA: Beginning a Community Active-eBook Project (.pdf), in Proceedings of 11th Koli Calling International Conference on Computing Education Research, November 17-20, 2011, Koli National Park, Finland, 112-117.
  11. M. Akbar, W. Fan, C.A. Shaffer, Y.L. Chen, L. Cassel, L. Delcambre, D.D. Garcia, G.W. Hislop, F. Shipman, R. Furuta, B.S. Carpenter II, H. Hsieh, B. Siegfried, and E.A. Fox, Digital Library 2.0 for Educational Resources (.pdf), in Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6966, Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries, (Proceedings of TPDL 2011), Berlin, Germany, September 2011, 89-100.
  12. C.A. Shaffer, T.L. Naps, and E. Fouh, Truly Interactive Textbooks for Computer Science Education (.pdf), in Proceedings of the Sixth Program Visualization Workshop, June 30, 2011, Darmstadt, Germany, 97-103.
  13. C.A. Shaffer, M. Akbar, A.J.D. Alon, M. Stewart, and S.H. Edwards, Getting Algorithm Visualizations into the Classroom (DOI, .pdf), in Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical Symposium on Computer Science Education (SIGCSE'11), March 9-12, 2011, Dallas, TX, 129-134.
  14. E. Fox, Y. Chen, M. Akbar, C.A. Shaffer, S.H. Edwards, P. Brusilovsky, D. Garcia, L. Delcambre, F. Decker, D. Archer, R. Furuta, F. Shipman, S. Carpenter, and L. Cassel, Ensemble PDP-8: Eight Principles for Distributed Portals (.pdf, DOI), in Proceedings of JCDL2010, Australia, June 21-25, 2010.
  15. C.A. Shaffer, T.L. Naps, S.H. Rodger, and S.H. Edwards, Building an Online Educational Community for Algorithm Visualization (.pdf, DOI), in Proceedings of the 41st ACM technical symposium on Computer science education (SIGCSE'10), March 11-13, 2010, Milwaukee, WI, 475-476.
  16. T.-H. Ahn, P. Wang, L.T. Watson, Y. Cao, C.A. Shaffer, and W.T. Baumann, Stochastic cell cycle modeling for budding yeast (.pdf, BibTeX), in Proceedings of the 2009 Spring Simulation Multiconference: HPC, Society for Modeling and Simulation International, San Diego, CA, 2009, 569-574.
  17. P. Wang, R. Randhawa, C.A. Shaffer, Y. Cao, and W.T. Baumann, Converting Macromolecular Regulatory Models from Deterministic to Stochastic Formulation (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 2008 High Performance Computing and Simulation Symposium, Ottawa, Canada, April 2008, 385-392.
  18. E. Thomas, L. Thomas, and C.A. Shaffer, Defect Detection on Hardwood Logs Using High Resolution Laser Scan Data (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Non-Distructive Testing of Wood, Deluth, MN, August 2007, 163-167.
  19. R. Randhawa, C.A. Shaffer, and J.J. Tyson, Fusing and Composing Macromolecular Regulatory Network Models (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 2007 High Performance Computing Symposium (HPC 2007), Norfolk, VA, March 2007, 337-344.
  20. C.A. Shaffer, M. Cooper, and S.H Edwards, Algorithm Visualization: A Report on the State of the Field (.pdf, BibTeX), in Proceedings of the 38th SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education( SIGCSE '07), Covington, KY, March 2007, 150-154.
  21. E. Thomas, L. Thomas, C.A. Shaffer and L. Mili, Using External High-Resolution Log Scanning to Determine Internal Defect Characteristics (pre-publication .pdf), in Proceedings of the 15th Central Hardwood Forestry Conference, Asheville, NC, February 2006.
  22. T.D. Panning, L.T. Watson, N.A. Allen, C.A. Shaffer, and J.J. Tyson, Deterministic Global Parameter Estimation for a Budding Yeast Model (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 2006 High Performance Computing Symposium (HPC'06), Huntsville, AL, 195-201.
  23. N.A. Allen, C.A. Shaffer and L.T. Watson, Building Modeling Tools that Support Verification, Validation, and Testing for the Domain Expert, (.pdf, BibTeX), in Proceedings of the 2005 Winter Simulation Conference, M.E. Kuhl, N.M Steiger, F.B. Armstrong and J.A. Joines, eds., 419-426.
  24. L. Thomas, L. Mili, C.A. Shaffer, and E. Thomas, Defect Detection on Hardwood Logs Using High Resolution Three-dimensional Laser Scan Data (.pdf, BibTeX), in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP, Singapore, October 24-27, 2004, 243-246.
  25. J. He, M. Sosonkina, C.A. Shaffer, J.J. Tyson, L.T. Watson, and J.W. Zwolak, A Hierarchical Parallel Scheme for a Global Search Algorithm (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 2004 High Performance Computing Symposium (HPC 2004), J. Meyer (ed.), Society for Modeling and Simulation International, San Diego, CA, 2004, 43-50.
  26. J. He, M. Sosonkina, C.A. Shaffer, J.J. Tyson, L.T. Watson, and J.W. Zwolak, A Hierarchical Parallel Scheme for Global Parameter Estimation in Systems Biology (.pdf, BibTeX), in Proceedings of the 18th International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS'04), CD-ROM, IEEE Computer Soc., Los Alamitos, CA, 2004, 9 pages.
  27. C.A. Shaffer, Buffer Pools and File Processing Projects for an Undergraduate Data Structures Course (.pdf, BibTeX), SIGCSE '04: Proceedings of the 35th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education, Norfolk VA, March 2004, 175-178.
  28. P. Saraiya, C.A. Shaffer, D.S. McCrickard, C. North, Effective Features of Algorithm Visualization (.pdf, BibTeX), SIGCSE '04: Proceedings of the 35th SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, Norfolk VA, March 2004, 382-386.
  29. N.A. Allen, C.A. Shaffer, M.T. Vass, N. Ramakrishnan, and L.T. Watson, Improving the Development Process for Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Models with a Modeling support environment (.pdf, BibTeX), in Proceedings of the 2003 Winter Simulation Conference, S. Chick, P.J. Sanchez, D. Ferrin, and D.J. Morrice, eds., 2003, 782-790.
  30. E. Thomas, L. Thomas, L. Mili, R. Ehrich, A.L. Abott, and C. Shaffer, Primary Detection of Hardwood Log Defects Using Laser Surface Scanning (.pdf), in Proceedings of Machine Vision Applications in Industrial Inspection XI, SPIE Volume 5011, Santa Clara, CA, January 2003, 39-48.
  31. M. Vass, J.M. Carroll, and C.A. Shaffer, Supporting Creativity in Problem Solving Environments (.pdf, BibTeX), Proceedings of the Fourth Creativity & Cognition Conference, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK, October 2002, 31-37.
  32. C. R. Anderson, T. S. Rappaport, K. Bae, A. Verstak, N. Ramakrishnan, W. H. Tranter, C. A. Shaffer, and L. T. Watson, In-Building Wideband Multipath Characteristics at 2.5 & 60 GHz (.pdf), in Proceedings of IEEE Vehicular Technology Fall Conference, Vancouver, Canada, 2002, 97-101.
  33. K. K. Bae, J. Jiang, W. H. Tranter, C. R. Anderson, T. S. Rappaport, J. He, A. Verstak, L. T. Watson, N. Ramakrishnan, and C. A. Shaffer, WCDMA STTD Performance Analysis with Transmitter Location Optimization in Indoor Systems Using Ray-Tracing Technique (.pdf), in Proceedings of IEEE 2002 Radio and Wireless Conference, Boston, MA, 2002, 123-127.
  34. V. Colaso, A. Kamal, P. Saraiya, C. North, D.S. McCrickard, and C.A. Shaffer, Learning and Retention in Data Structures: A Comparison of Visualization, Text, and Combined Methods (.pdf), in Proceedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia/Hypermedia and Educational Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA 2002), Denver CO, June 2002, 332-333.
  35. A. Verstak, J. He, L. T. Watson, N. Ramakrishnan, C. A. Shaffer, T. S. Rappaport, C. R. Anderson, K. Bae, J. Jiang, and W. H. Tranter, S4W: Globally Optimized Design of Wireless Communication Systems (.pdf, BibTeX), in Proceedings of the 16th International Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium, CD-ROM, IEEE Computer Soc., Los Alamitos, CA, 2002, 8 pages.
  36. J. He, A. Verstak, L. T. Watson, T. S. Rappaport, C. R. Anderson, N. Ramakrishnan, C. A. Shaffer, W. H. Tranter, K. Bae, and J. Jiang, Global Optimization of Transmitter Placement in Wireless Communication Systems (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 2002 High Performance Computing Symposium (HPC'02), A. Tentner (ed.), Soc. for Modeling and Simulation Internat., San Diego, CA, 2002, 328-333.
  37. A. Verstak, M. Vass, N. Ramakrishnan, C.A. Shaffer, L.T. Watson, K.K. Bae, J. Jiang, W.H. Tranter, and T.S. Rappaport, Lightweight Data Management for Compositional Modeling in Problem Solving Environments (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 2001 High Performance Computing Symposium (HPC'01), A. Tentner (ed.), Soc. for Modeling and Simulation Internat., San Diego, CA, 2001, 148-153.
  38. C. A. Shaffer, N. Ramakrishnan, L. T. Watson, R. Dymond, and V. Lohani, The role of problem solving environments in watershed assessment (.pdf), in Proceedings of the Integrated Decision-Making for Watershed Management Symposium: Processes and Tools, Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Blacksburg, VA, VWRRC P7-2001, 2001, 677-690.
  39. E. J. Rubin, R. Dietz, J. Chanat, C. Speir, R. Dymond, V. Lohani, D. Kibler, D. Bosch, C. A. Shaffer, N. Ramakrishnan, and L. T. Watson, From Landscapes to Waterscapes: A PSE for Landuse Change Analysis (.pdf), in Proceedings of the Integrated Decision-Making for Watershed Management Symposium: Processes and Tools, Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Blacksburg, VA, VWRRC P7-2001, 2001, 643-659.
  40. E.J. Rubin, R. Dietz, S. Lingam, J. Chanat, C. Speir, R. Dymond, V. Lohani, D. Kibler, D. Bosch, C.A. Shaffer, N. Ramakrishnan, and L.T. Watson, From Landscapes to Waterscapes: A PSE for Landuse Change Analysis (.pdf), Proceedings of the 16th IMACS World Congress, Special Session on `PSEs for Scientific Computing,' Lausanne Switzerland, M. Deville and R. Owens (eds.), CD-ROM, August 2000, 6 pages.
  41. C. A. Shaffer, L. T. Watson, D. G. Kafura, and N. Ramakrishnan, Features of Problem Solving Environments for Computational Science (.pdf), in Proceedings of the 2000 High Performance Computing Symposium (HPC'00), A. Tentner (Ed.), Society for Computer Simulation International, San Diego, CA, 2000, 242-247.
  42. A. Goel, C. Baker, C.A. Shaffer, B. Grossman, R.T. Haftka, W.H. Mason, and L.T. Watson, VizCraft: A Multidimensional Visualization Tool for Aircraft Configuration Design (.pdf, BibTeX), in Proceedings of IEEE Visualization'99, San Francisco, CA, October 1999, 425-428,555.
  43. C.A. Shaffer, L.T. Watson, and D.G. Kafura, Component Frameworks for Problem Solving Environments (.pdf), in Computational Science in Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Reusable Architectures and Components for Developing Distributed Information Systems (RACDIS'99), Orlando, Fl, August 1999, 653-656.
  44. J.B. Begole, M.B. Rosson and C.A. Shaffer, Supporting Worker Independence in Collaboration Transparency (.pdf, BibTeX), Proceedings of the 1998 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, November 1998, 133-142.
  45. C.A. Shaffer, D.L. Knill, and L.T. Watson, Visualization for Multiparameter Aircraft Designs (.pdf, BibTeX), Proceedings of IEEE Visualization'98, Research Triangle Park, NC, October 1998, 491-494,575.
  46. P.L. Isenhour, J. Begole, W.S. Heagy, and C.A. Shaffer, Sieve: A Java-Based Collaborative Visualization Environment (.pdf), Late Breaking Hot Topics Proceedings, IEEE Visualization'97, Phoenix, AZ, October 1997, 13-16.
  47. J. Begole, C.A. Struble, C.A. Shaffer, and R.B. Smith, Transparent Sharing of Java Applets: A Replicated Approach (.pdf, BibTeX), Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (UIST'97), Banff, Alberta, Canada, October 1997, 55-64.
  48. C.A. Shaffer, L.S. Heath, J.M. Nielsen and J. Yang, SWAN: A Student-Controllable Data Structure Visualization System (.pdf), Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 96, Boston MA, June 1996, 632-637.
  49. C.A. Shaffer, L.S. Heath and J. Yang, Using the Swan Data Structure Visualization System for Computer Science Education (.pdf, BibTeX), SIGCSE '96: Proceedings of the twenty-seventh SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education, Philadelphia PA, February 1996, 140-144.
  50. J. Yang, C.A. Shaffer and L.S. Heath, SWAN: A Data Structure Visualization System (.pdf BibTeX), in Proceedings of Graph Drawing '95, Passau, Germany, September 1995, Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science 1027, 520-523.
  51. J.S. Bright, C.A. Shaffer, P.S. Nagarkatti and M. Nagarkatti, Computer Simulation of the Immune System (.pdf), in Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Seminar of Cancer Researchers in Virginia, Blacksburg, VA, March 1994, 17.
  52. C.A. Shaffer, J.M.A. Begole, L.W. Carstensen, Jr., R.W. Morrill and E.A. Fox, GeoSim: A GIS-Based Simulation Laboratory for Introductory Geography (.pdf), Proceedings of the 1994 ADCIS Conference, Nashville, TN, February 1994.
  53. J.M.A. Begole, C.A. Shaffer, and M. Lattanzi, The Project GeoSim Graphical User Interface (.pdf), Proceedings of the 23rd Virginia Computer Users Conference, Blacksburg, VA, October 1993, 17-27.
  54. C.A. Shaffer and P.R. Brown, A Paging Scheme for Pointer-Based Quadtrees (.pdf, BibTeX), in Advances in Spatial Databases, (D. Abel and B-C. Ooi, Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 692, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1993, 89-104 (also, Proceedings of the Third International Symposium, SSD'93, Singapore, June 1993).
  55. C.A. Shaffer and M.T. Ursekar, Large Scale Editing and Vector to Raster Conversion Via Quadtree Spatial Indexing (.pdf), Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Charleston, SC, August 1992, 505-513.
  56. C.A. Shaffer, A Full Resolution Elevation Representation Requiring Three Bits Per Pixel (.pdf, BibTeX), in Design and Implementation of Large Spatial Databases, (A. Buchmann, O. Gunther, T.R. Smith and Y.-F. Wang, Eds.), Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science 409, 45-64 (also, Proceedings of the Symposium on the Design and Implementation of Large Spatial Databases, Santa Barbara, CA, Jul 1989).
  57. **D.N. Oskard, T.-H. Hong, and C.A. Shaffer, Real-Time Algorithms and Data Structures for Underwater Mapping, SPIE Symposium on Sensor Fusion: Spatial Reasoning and Scene Interpretation, Cambridge MA, Nov 1988.
  58. C.-H. Ang, H. Samet, and C.A. Shaffer, Fast Region Expansion for Quadtrees (.pdf), Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Sydney, Australia, Aug 1988, 19-38.
  59. C.A. Shaffer and H. Samet, An Optimal Quadtree Construction Algorithm, (.pdf, BibTeX), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Paris, France, Oct, 1986, 317-319.
  60. H. Samet, C.A. Shaffer, R.C. Nelson, Y.G. Huang, K. Fujimura, and A. Rosenfeld, Recent Developments in Quadtree-Based Geographic Information Systems (.pdf), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Seattle, Jul 1986, 15-32, (see also Geographic Information Systems Workshop, Springfield, Virginia, Dec 1985).
  61. H. Samet, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, The Segment Quadtree: A Linear Quadtree-Based Representation for Linear Features, (.pdf), Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'85), San Francisco, Jun 1985, 385-389.
  62. H. Samet, A. Rosenfeld, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, Use of Hierarchical Data Structures in Geographical Information Systems (.pdf), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, Zurich, Aug 1984, 392-411.
  63. H. Samet, A. Rosenfeld, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, Processing Geographic Data with Quadtrees, (.pdf), Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Montreal, Aug 1984, 212-215.
  64. H. Samet, A. Rosenfeld, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, A Quadtree-Based Geographical Information System, (.pdf), Proceedings of the Third Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis, Copenhagen, Jul 1983, 231-236.

Technical Reports

Most of these links are to the Virginia Tech CS Department Technical Report series. Many technical reports are early drafts of papers eventually published elsewhere.
  1. Deterministic Parallel Global Parameter Estimation for a Model of the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-06-01 Panning, Thomas D. and Watson, Layne T. and Allen, Nicholas A. and Chen, Katherine C. and Shaffer, Clifford A. and Tyson, John J., 2006.
  2. Globally Optimal Transmitter Placement for Indoor Wireless Communication Systems, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-02-17, J. He, A. Verstak, L.T. Watson, C.A. Stinson, N. Ramakrishnan, C.A. Shaffer, T.S. Rappaport, C.R. Anderson, K. Bae, J. Jiang, and W.H. Tranter, 2002.
  3. S4W: Globally Optimized Design of Wireless Communication Systems, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-02-16, J. He, A. Verstak, L.T. Watson, C.A. Stinson, N. Ramakrishnan, C.A. Shaffer, T.S. Rappaport, C.R. Anderson, K. Bae, J. Jiang, and W.H. Tranter, 2002.
  4. Using Hierarchical Data Mining to Characterize Performance of Wireless System Configurations, Technical Report cs.CE/0208040, Computing Research Repository (CoRR), A. Verstak, N. Ramakrishnan, K.K. Bae, W.H. Tranter, L.T. Watson, J. He, C.A. Shaffer, and T.S. Rappaport, 2002.
  5. NetEdit: A Collaborative Editor (.pdf). Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-01-13, A.A. Zafer, C.A. Shaffer, R.W. Ehrich, M. Perez; September 2001.
  6. From Landscapes to Waterscapes: A PSE for Landuse Change Analysis, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-00-09, E.J.Rubin, R.Diet, J.Chanat, C.Speir, R.Dymond, V.Lohani, D.Kibler , D.Bosch, C.A.Shaffer, N.Ramakrishnan , and L.T.Watson, 2000.
  7. System Resource Sharing for Synchronous Collaboration. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-99-11, J. Begole, C.A. Struble, C. Shaffer and R.B. Smith; September 13, 1999.
  8. VizCraft: A Problem Solving Environment for Configuration Design of High Speed Civil Transport. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-99-02, A. Goel, C. A. Baker, C. A. Shaffer, B. Grossman, W. H. Mason, L. T. Watson and R. T. Haftka; September 24, 1999.
  9. WBCSim: A Prototype Problem Solving Environment for Wood-Based Composites Simulations. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-98-25, A. Goel, C. Phanouriou, F. A. Kamke, C. J. Ribbens, C. A. Shaffer and L. T. Watson; December 20, 1998.
  10. PSE Research at Virginia Tech: An Overview. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-98-21, Marc Abrams, Donald Allison, Dennis Kafura, Calvin Ribbens, Mary Beth Rosson, Clifford Shaffer and Layne T. Watson; August 21, 1998.
  11. JavaBeans as a Framework for Collaborative Software. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-98-13, James "Bo" Begole, Philip L. Isenhour and Clifford A. Shaffer; May 8, 1998
  12. Supporting Worker Independence in Collaboration Transparency. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-98-12, James "Bo" Begole, Mary Beth Rosson and Clifford A. Shaffer; May 8, 1998
  13. Flexible Collaboration Transparency. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-98-11, James "Bo" Begole and Clifford A. Shaffer; April 22, 1998.
  14. Sluice: A Java-Based Framework for Collaborative Interactive Modular Visualization Environments. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-97-17, Philip Isenhour, Clifford A. Shaffer, James Begole, Jeff Nielsen and Marc Abrams; October 24,1997.
  15. Collaboration Transparency in Java through Event Broadcasting. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-97-02, James "Bo" Begole, Craig A. Struble and Clifford Shaffer; February 20, 1997.
  16. Internet Based Real-Time Multiuser Simulation: Ppong!. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-97-01, James "Bo" Begole and Clifford Shaffer; February 20, 1997.
  17. The Swan User's Manual, Version 1.1. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-95-14, Jun Yang, Clifford A. Shaffer and Lenwood S. Heath; August 30, 1995.
  18. The GeoSim Interface Library (GIL): Programmer's Manual, Version1.0.1. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-94-31, David T. Hines, James M. A. Begole, Colin A. Klipsch and Clifford A. Shaffer; 1994.
  19. Analysis of the Worst Case Space Complexity of a PR Quadtree. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-92-09, Sriram V. Pemmaraju and Clifford A. Shaffer; 1992.
  20. Device Independent Perspective Volume Rendering Using Octrees. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-92-05, Timothy Lee Ryan and Clifford A. Shaffer; May 1992.
  21. A Representation and Algorithm for Exact Computation of Cascaded Polygon Intersections with Fixed Storage Requirements. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-91-29, Clifford A. Shaffer and Charles D. Feustel; 1991.
  22. Project GEOSIM: The First Two Modules. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-91-26, Clifford A. Shaffer, Laurence W. Carstensen, Vincent F. Miranda, Sheryl A. Kriss, Robert W. Morrill and Edward A. Fox; 1991.
  23. The Elevation Pyramid. Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-90-29, Clifford A. Shaffer and Dave B. Boldery; 1990
  24. A Real Time Robot Arm Collision Detection System, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-90-28, Clifford A. Shaffer and Gregory M. Herb; 1990
  25. A Generalized Comparison of Quadtree and Bintree Storage Requirement, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-89-23, Clifford A. Shaffer, Ramana Juvvadi, and Lenwood S. Heath; 1989.
  26. An Optimal Boundary to Quadtree Conversion Algorithm, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-89-16, Mark Lattanzi and Clifford A. Shaffer; 1989.
  27. Linear Time Distance Transforms for Quadtrees, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-89-07, C.A. Shaffer and Q.F. Stout; 1989.
  28. Set Operations for Unaligned Linear Quadtrees, Virginia Tech Department of Computer Science TR-88-31, C.A. Shaffer and H. Samet; 1988.
  29. An In-Core Hierarchical Data Structure Organization for a Geographic Database, Computer Science TR-1886, University of Maryland, C.A. Shaffer and H. Samet, Jul 1987.
  30. Application of Hierarchical Data Structures to Geographic Information Systems: Phase IV, Computer Science TR-1578, University of Maryland, H. Samet, A. Rosenfeld, C. A. Shaffer, R. C. Nelson, Y.-G. Huang, K. Fujimura, Dec 1985
  31. Application of Hierarchical Data Structures to Geographic Information Systems: Phase III, Computer Science TR-1457, University of Maryland, H. Samet, A. Rosenfeld, C.A. Shaffer, R.C. Nelson, and Y-G. Huang, Nov 1984.
  32. Application of Hierarchical Data Structures to Geographic Information Systems: Phase II, Computer Science TR-1327, University of Maryland, A. Rosenfeld, H. Samet, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, Sep, 1983.
  33. Application of Hierarchical Data Structures to Geographic Information Systems, Computer Science TR-1197, University of Maryland, A. Rosenfeld, H. Samet, C.A. Shaffer, and R.E. Webber, Jun, 1982.

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